A Figure Descriptions
Alt-text descriptions for figures in the book:
Figure 1.1: Fully riot-geared and for some reason in green camo US Homeland Security agents (to the middle and the left of the photo) behind a row of two-foot tall, one-foot radius metal posts, behind a metal grate wall over 7 feet tall with metal support beams and concrete pylon buttressing. In the front of the left side is an agent holding a plastic clear riot shield, through which you can see a patch that say ‘Border Patrol Federal Agent’ in yellow and some insignia patches as well. In the middle are the agents in camo, one with a hand on the shoulder of another who is operating a thermal fogger machine shooting gas through the fence. The machine is maybe four or five feet long and has a body not unlike a bush whacker with a two-cycle engine, but fueling a vaporizer instead of a rotor. The agent is holding the machine with their right hand visibly and there is a black strap across their shoulder holding it up. The machine is mostly shiny metal, although the tip is showing signs of corrosion (no surprise based on the compounds and heat) and the supports of the body are a bright green
Figure 1.2: B/W image drawing with text from an old white paper book. The text says FOG DISSEMINATION at the top then a paragraph with
Fog dissemination devices operate by rapidly vaporizing a high boiling point liquid agent formulation. This is accomplished by injecting the liquid agent into a hot gas flow and allowing the vaporized agent to contact the cooler ambient air where the agent condenses into a fog and ultimately into extremely small agent particles.In the middle is the drawing with a square on the left with a long rectangle coming out of it to the right with a cloud out the further end of the rectangle. There are bits of text around it, pointing to the box it says
COMBUSTION CHAMBER. in the middle of the rectange it says
HOT GASESin the middle of arrows pointing out towards the cloud. Along the rectangle another injection area is noted for
Liquid Agent InjectionText on the bottom says
FIGURE 4. FOG DISSEMINATION. A liquid chemical agent is vaporized by a hot gas flow and released as a fog cloud.
Figure 2.1: Book illustration (colorful, hand-rendered style) of green-clad US military service members in helmets flak vests, boots, etc, standing around a thermal fogger in the foreground. The fogger is a non-portable Mity Mite style fogger with a big reservoir and giant vacuum style hose running through a green tarp that’s lying on the ground and covering the tunnel entrance. They are in a clearing with huts and the jungle in the background.
Figure 2.2: Book illustration (blank and greys, hand-rendered style) of a two-level village tunnel system, connecting most of the structures with defensive trenches and bunkers. There are eight houses surrounding a community building and the nearest ones are cut-away so you can see into them and the ground beneath them, which shows the tunnels and bunkers. Each house has a shelter and they are connected via tunnels. There is a puji-stake moat with a sharpened bamboo fence around it surrounding the village and there’s one road in, with a gate at the fence. There is a river or open water of some kind on the other side of the fence and then some fields and jungle. The community building is two stories and is next to a single flag on a pole in the center of the village. The flag is blank, and so functionally white.
Figure 2.3: B/W image. Open trench at bottom, center. Pipe runs across trench and into the dirt on either side. Person in gas mask crouched below pipe looking up and forward. Leg in pants and lace up boot stretched over trench leaning against right edge. Other leg and boot partially visible on left. Hand holding lit cigarette resting on foot on left.
Figure 2.4: Text-book style map of the III Corps Tactical Zone from 1965-1967, according to the legend. This is the area of Vietnam around Saigon, with some of the South China Sea visible to the south at the bottom and Cambodia to the north west in the upper left portion. Major highways and cities are indicated on the map, but the main points are the color highlighted boundaries of the two war zones and the iron triangle, which are all in reddish organge, and the full tactical zone in a darker blue. There is text in the bottom left that says Map 13 and there is a unit bar in the legend that gives distances in both miles and kilometers.
Figure 2.5: Technical rendering sketch of a tank with the words Mity Mite on the side. Funnel on bottom of tank leads to exhaust hose below and pipe on bottom of tank has small flexible hose attaching to exhaust hose as well. Exhaust hose comes from below and curves upward to the right. Below the tanks and attached by a frame is a small motor.
Figure 2.6: B/W image in a dirt field. Helmeted soldier on one knee with tank strapped on back. Lifting a board with left hand and holding an exhaust tube from the tank under the board with right hand.
Figure 2.7: B/W image. In a clearing in a densely vegetated area, a small tank with an exhaust pipe blowing fog to the right. The cloud of fog covers much of the right side. Towards the back, 2 people wearing helmets and fatigues with sleeves rolled up stand with hands on hips on either side of the fogger, watching it.
Figure 2.8: Screen cap of a photo copy of an old report, it’s black and white and in bad shape, but legible for the most part. It’s Table A.2.1.2, Chemical Sprays and Foggers. There are columns: Device/Model, Manufacturer, Description, Estimated Cost (for development or for purchase), and Status (available already or needing development). There are 6 rows, one for each Device/Model: MK17 Pepper Fog CS-Tear Smoke Generator, MK XII, Turb A Fog Tear Gas Dispenser, Federal Dust Projector 271, Dynafog 70, and a propsed vehicle based fogger based on the mosquito fogging approach.
Figure 2.9: Black and white photo of a Mighty Mite blower on the left and two containers of acetylene in the middle, both containers are metal boxes with labeling in small white text and then some bladder bag on top. There are large vaccum size hozes coming off the blower and going off frame to the right. The scene is the ground of a jungle that has been cleared a little, there are trees and foliage in the background and dense but matted down grass in the fore.
Figure 2.10: An individual crouches on the ground next to a blower, facing off to the right, with his left hand slightly resting on it. The photo is aimed down at this person, so the two people looking at the fogger while standing are partially visible from the feet upwards. The photo is an old black and white image and there are items around the sides that are difficult to make out, including potentially a cache of chemical weapons grenades on the right side and some sandbacks in the back.
Figure 3.1: Yellowed black and white photo of a stationary Mighty Mite thermal fogger. It’s a backpack fogger, so there’s a giant hose that’s like a vacuum hose wrapped around in the middle and then another one coming off of the actual backpack, which is upright in the middle back right. there is a metal frame and a large reservoir tank sitting on top of the engine and other aspects of the machinery. There is a tube running out to the end of the hose nose from the back pack. On the right side of the image is a scale bar that makes it seem like the backpack is 24 inches tall.
Figure 3.2: Black and white technical drawing of a hand-held 2-cycle thermal fogger. The drawing is pretty minimal, but shows enough detail, in particular around the engine and fan, to get a sense of how it operates. There are also a few labels pointing out via arrows what the Recould Rope Starter, Fuel Tank, Carrying Handle, Creifugal Blower Assemble, and Air/Agent Exit Ports are, and to the where the Vaporized Agent is injected into the air stream.
Figure 3.3: Black and white photo of a thermal fogger that is basically a 2-cycle weed-wacker engine on top of a chemical agent metal drum with a nozzle sticking out to the right that is about a yard long, it’s dark and has some hardware on it. The drum says Federal Fogger and then other things that are illegible. The drum is a dark color and the main engine is light, with a dark handle and strap.
Figure 3.4: Black and white photo of police officer in a gas mask and riot helmet with the shield flipped up and full uniform, but not riot gear. The officer is holding a hand-held fogger that has a white top on the part, some shiny metal in the middle and then dark on the bottom with a dark nozzle that is spewing some fog. The officer is standing in a field in front of a forest.
Figure 3.5: Yellowed black and white photo of a stationary pepper fog thermal fogger pointed to the left sitting by itself. The main body is a square box that’s dark with a tag in the middle that’s lighter and has dark writing on it that says pepper fog g o e c. The nozzle points to the left and is a longer thinner tube about twice as long as the main body. It is also dark and has a metal cage around it that is sparse and shiny. There’s also a handle and some knobs on the top of the item and something that’s a little bit difficult to make out off the back of the main body.
Figure 3.6: Photocopied, blurried black and white magazine spread advertisement for General Ordnance Equipment Company (GOEC). The ad shows both their chemical mace and their fogger, although the fogger takes up 3/4 of the page. The left side has two main panels, one for each weapon, the top is a mace one showing an officer spraying mace into someone’s face and the bottom part is the picture of the person fogging the railroad. The right side is an explainer on the pepper fogger that has three photos (including a repeat of the railroad one) at the top, the item image in the middle, and then a whole bunch of specs that are too blury to read
Figure 3.7: Yellow-gold box shape tool with a handle on top, an image of an eagle in flight on the side, and some gauges on top.The back of the box tapers and appears to have switches and controls. Coming out of the front is a long tube that narrows at the end. The tube has a wire cage surrounding it.
Figure 3.8: Black and white photo of a person using a pepper fogger across some railroad tracks. The person is standing in the mid ground on the left side of the photo and fogging towards the right mid-ground where the train tracks come from. The fog obscures the origins of the tracks off to the background on the right side of the photo. Behind the person on the left side is a taller tree along short building a car and some foliage. Further behind is a ridge of some kind with trees on it. The train tracks are old and partially overgrown.
Figure 3.9: Black and white newspaper clipping of an officer standing in front of a open garage door, next to a police car that is partially in frame on the left and front areas. A GOEC-style thermal fogger sits on the hood of the car in front of the officer, pointing towards and to the left of the camera. The officer is wearing beat clothing and a cop hat and also has a shotgun.
Figure 3.10: Black and white newspaper clipping of an officer standing in a field just front a forest/brush line, fogging out into the open area as part of a demonstration. The officer is wearing a riot helmet and coveralls and has the fogger slug over their right arm with a strap they are also holding with their left hand. The officer stands in the left part of the frame, fogging to the right, using a GOEC-style fogger with the nozzle tip right in the middle of the photo.
Figure 3.11: Black and white photo of an individual standing in a grass field with wood horse fence and trees and barns in the background. The individual is in light clothes and a black cap and is using both hands to hold a pepper fogger, which they are using to fog some grass on the right side of the photo. they are facing the camera, so the classic GOEC label is visible.
Figure 3.12: Black and white newspaper clipping of two officers standing in front of a large brick wall. Scott County deputy sheriff Jim Lewis, left, holds a new grenade launcher and a riot gun. he is donning a standard beat uniform with a bucket hat. Sheriff William Strout is on the right in street clothes and is holding a GOEC pepper fogger in his right hand and gas mask in his left. The officers are making an X with the barrells of the grenade launcher and fogger.
Figure 4.1: B/W newspaper clipping. To left is an officer wearing long pants, long sleeved shirt, and a helmet walking forward carrying a fogger in the right hand. The fogger is blowing fog through a tube and a cloud is forming. Background is a storefront window and door. To the right 2 people are moving away from the fog, leaning on one another, and covering their faces with their hands.
Figure 4.2: Yellowed black and white photo of a stationary pepper fog thermal fogger pointed to the left sitting by itself. The main body is a square box that’s dark with a tag in the middle that’s lighter and has dark writing on it that says pepper fog g o e c. The nozzle points to the left and is a longer thinner tube about twice as long as the main body. It is also dark and has a metal cage around it that is sparse and shiny. There’s also a handle and some knobs on the top of the item and something that’s a little bit difficult to make out off the back of the main body.
Figure 6.1: B/W Image: One person wearing gas mask and helmet, centered, stepping to the right. Person is holding slim white club in left hand and pepper-fogger in right hand. Fogger is pointing forward and a white cloud is surrounding the person to the front, back, and behind. The remaining background is black.
Figure 6.2: B/W Image: Background has brick building with steps. In front of the building from center to right, a line of 5 police officers facing front and wearing helmets & gas masks holding slim white clubs about a yard long. They are standing with legs apart and clubs in both hands in front of their bodies. On the left 5 officers similarly dressed, facing towards one another. Four slim clubs are visible, and one officer is holding what appears to be a fogger in one arm hanging down at the side.
Figure 6.3: B/W newspaper clipping. Four people walking towards camera wearing helmets with face shields. Person on the left wearing white shirt and tie has several items hanging from belt. In right hand carrying radio with extended antenna. On right side person dressed in all black standing with a wide stance and holding pepper-fogger at hip height in right hand aimed forward. In center two more people dressed in all black, one with a short stick or club in left hand. Background is mostly cloudy with someone behind white shirt person, holding some sort of stick aloft. Glimpses of additional bodies are visible in the cloudy background.
Figure 6.4: B/W newspaper clipping. Rather difficult to make out the people differentially in the background, but there’s a large group of folks standing in the back part of the photo, the mid ground is relatively empty but filling with a cloud of white smoke eminating from an area on the left that appears to be an officer holding a thermal fogger. Behind everyone is the student union.
Figure 6.5: Guardsmen with bayonetted rifles and sheriff’s deputies with tear and and pepper fogger walking through UC campus: B/W newspaper clipping: Eight people in masks, shields, and tied boots walking from left to right, the one in front wearing a spray fogger strapped on back and holding the hose and nozzle in front. A cloud of fog is spraying from the nozzle. The second person is carrying a bayoneted rifle upright. The others are only partially visible as they are passing behind a tree. On the right ahead of the others an additional helmeted person can be seen turning towards the left. Two slim trees are in the foreground.
Figure 6.6: Four people walking away from camera, wearing helmets and holsters. Lead person has a fogger on their back and is holding the hose on the right spraying a fog ahead of them. Person on the right is carrying a bayoneted rifle raised above the left shoulder. The four are walking into the fog they’ve produced. There are some small trees to the right.
Figure 6.7: B/W photo of An old style open-top army jeep with two National Guard troops in the front and one in the rear, the one in the rear is operating a thermal fogger. They are driving down what appears to be a residential street from right to left. There are houses and cars behind them and no one in sight on the street/sidewalk/etc.
Figure 6.8: Black and white photo of a college quad with brick facade white column buildingsbehind trees around the left, back, and part of right sides of the frame. Eight or so police officers walking away from the camera wear riot gear. A few in dark, a few in light. One in light near the front is carrying a fogger with a shoulder strap and spraying a big cloud off to the left, obscuring a large portion of the photograph.
Figure 6.9: Black and white photo of a college A whole bunch of police officers stand on or in front of a short (3 ft) brick wall surrounding the open field. A road, grass, and sidewalk are on this side of the wall, and a tree is just over it on that side. The open field behind the wall is filled with fog from one or perhaps two individuals fogging the chapel, which is where a large crowd gathers on the steps in the background. The chapel has a brick facade and white columns and a very large spire clock tower. The student protesters are visible on the steps of the chapel holding sigms.
Figure 6.10: Black and white photo of a GOEC Pepper Fog fogger on a white ground with a maryland state police badge and in front of a brick wall. The fogger is in the mid right and points off to the left.
Figure 6.11: B/W faded image: To the left is a person wearing a uniform with a patch on the shoulder and a helmet. In their right hand is the nozzle to a fogger and it appears to be emitting fog. There is a white fog cloud covering most of the rest of the image.
Figure 6.12: yellowed B/W faded image of police officers standing on a T of a sidewalk blocking the space from a group of predominately Black young people, who are standing behind them on the grass and facing the camera. Behind them are some cars and houses across a stree. The officer in the front left of the frame is carrying a Pepper Fog GOEC fogger.
Figure 7.1: B/W newspaper clipping: To the left there are several people crouched on the ground with their heads down and covered. Behind them is a small crowd of people turning and moving away. To the right are three officials in helmets and masks facing the people on the ground and holding a fogger in front that is spraying a cloud of fog right over those on the ground.
Figure 7.2: B/W image: Two people in foreground wearing helmets and face shields with gas masks and uniforms with short sleeves walking towards the camera, carrying boxy looking tools with nozzles pointing forward, with both hands. Person behind, also in short sleeve uniform, helmet, and gas mask carrying slim sabre or rod across the body. Behind these people seem to be more people but there are no clear details.
Figure 9.1: Fully riot-geared and for some reason in green camo US Homeland Security agents (to the middle and the left of the photo) behind a row of two-foot tall, one-foot radius metal posts, behind a metal grate wall over 7 feet tall with metal support beams and concrete pylon buttressing. In the front of the left side is an agent holding a plastic clear riot shield, through which you can see a patch that say ‘Border Patrol Federal Agent’ in yellow and some insignia patches as well. In the middle are the agents in camo, one with a hand on the shoulder of another who is operating a thermal fogger machine shooting gas through the fence. The machine is maybe four or five feet long and has a body not unlike a bush whacker with a two-cycle engine, but fueling a vaporizer instead of a rotor. The agent is holding the machine with their right hand visibly and there is a black strap across their shoulder holding it up. The machine is mostly shiny metal, although the tip is showing signs of corrosion (no surprise based on the compounds and heat) and the supports of the body are a bright green.
Figure 9.2: One person in green protective gear, wearing a bulletproof vest with weapons strapped to the body and wearing a helmet and gas mask is walking to the left carrying a fogger in the right hand arm extended down, nozzle pointing forward. A cloud of gas is coming from the nozzle. Next to them is someone dressed all in black with a bullet proof vest with the word POLICE across the back, also wearing a helmet and gas mask. It is night and there are additional clouds of gas and the shapes of people in the background.
Figure 9.3: Night in a city, building lights in the background. One person standing alone in the center of a road, shown from the waist to the ankles. The person is wearing work pants with covered pockets at the thighs and calves, long sleeve shirt, and a glove on the right hand. In the left hand they are gripping the handle of a neon green fogger tool. The long black nozzle, covered with a wire cage, projects backwards and the motor is towards the front. It is being held at hip height; the arm holding it is relaxed down.
Figure 9.4: Night time with the light from a street light visible in the background. Two officers dressed in full protective gear with bulletproof vests holding supplies on, with the word POLICE stenciled in yellow. They are both wearing helmets and gas masks. The nearer one is holding a gas fogger in the right hand. Thefogger looks like a long tube between 3 and 4 feet long with a handle and motor parts near the back. The tube is covered with a wire cage until about the last half foot, which is a plain and narrower tube. Behind these two officers are some dimly lit buildings and one or two other officers but they are not clear.
Figure 9.5: Nine people wearing full protective gear including helmets and gas masks standing spread out across a street at night. One is holding a gas fogger in one hand and gas is spewing and a cloud is forming in front of them. There is also some gas cloud behind the group. All of them seem to be wearing weapons on their gear but details are not clear. It is night. There is a grey building in the background with a red door and red trim. A white stripe on the roadway has the words MELT ICE spray painted on it.